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Peter Attia, MD is a highly respected expert in preventive medicine, focused on the crucial subject of longevity and cardiovascular health. He's also the author of the NY Times best selling book Outlive - which I highly recommend if you have not read it already. Peter's philosophy transcends the conventional goal of merely extending lifespan; it's about enriching the quality of every year, ensuring that each stage of life is lived with optimal health and vitality.

In this episode, we discuss:

  • (00:07:36) Defining cardiovascular disease
  • (00:09:43) Coronary plaque and fatality risk
  • (00:11:09) What is cholesterol?
  • (00:13:34) How ApoB predicts heart disease
  • (00:21:34) Factors elevating ApoB
  • (00:25:24) ApoB reference range explained
  • (00:27:23) Does high ApoB cause cardiovascular disease
  • (00:37:01) ApoB thresholds for ASCVD prevention
  • (00:40:27) Dietary factors raising ApoB
  • (00:39:33) Genetics of ApoB and LDL
  • (00:53:24) Does low LDL increase cancer?
  • (00:56:19) Cholesterol-lowering drugs
  • (00:59:59) Statins, uses, and side effects
  • (01:03:12) Are statins toxic to mitochondria?
  • (01:09:56) Ubiquinol for statin-induced muscle soreness
  • (01:11:09) How to train in zone 2
  • (01:17:09) Statins and neurodegenerative disease risk
  • (01:21:54) Cholesterol synthesis in the brain (desmosterol role)
  • (01:25:58) Statin alternatives – pros and cons
  • (01:27:30) Ezetimibe
  • (01:31:01) Bempedoic acid
  • (01:36:49) Berberine for CVD Risk Reduction?
  • (01:39:36) Muscle as a glucose sink
  • (01:45:58) Chronic glucose toxicity and vascular impact
  • (01:51:38) Hemoglobin A1C Levels and Mortality Data
  • (01:55:35) 80/20 Zone 2/VO2 Max Training Protocol
  • (02:02:12) Insights from VO2 max testing data
  • (02:12:17) How obesity increases cancer risk
  • (02:15:03) Cancer screening benefits and risks
  • (02:20:47) Dr. Attia's recommended cancer screening age
  • (02:28:54) Liquid biopsies for detecting cancer
  • (02:34:48) CT scans, mammograms and radiation concerns
  • (02:40:32) Menopause – hormonal shifts and health effects
  • (02:45:13) Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
  • (02:58:57) Perimenopause diagnosis with hormone levels
  • (03:02:04) HRT's impact on dementia, cancer, and heart disease risk
  • (03:04:49) Estrogen's role in bone density
  • (03:07:42) Vitamin D
  • (03:16:24) Testosterone replacement for women's sexual function
  • (03:18:47) HRT safety 10 years post-menopause
  • (03:23:05) Treating low testosterone in men
  • (03:29:53) TRT side effects and risks
  • (03:32:33) Ways to reduce blood pressure
  • (03:39:33) How to measure blood pressure
  • (03:45:30) Peter's longevity optimization routines

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Direct download: peter-attia-public.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:19am EST

Download the 9-Page "Cognitive Enhancement Blueprint" companion guide at bdnfprotocols.com.

This episode challenges common perceptions about exercise, delving deep into the benefits of vigorous exercise for not just physical health but also brain function, aging, and even cancer prevention. It tackles fundamental questions, like what genetic and metabolic adaptations occur with vigorous exercise and how it can contribute to combating heart's age-related changes. We also unpack how these rigorous exercises affect glucose transport, mitochondrial health, and brain health at an intricate level. Lastly, it introduces practical applications like the Norwegian 4x4 interval training protocol, the benefits of "exercise snacks," and how to incorporate vigorous-intensity exercise into everyday life.

In this episode, I discuss:

  • (00:00) Introduction
  • (04:34) What differentiates "vigorous" from "zone 2" training
  • (08:34) Ties between VO2 max & life expectancy
  • (11:55) Why zone 2 training doesn't guarantee VO2 max improvements
  • (14:17) How to balance zone 2 training & vigorous-intensity workouts
  • (16:17) Why the Norwegian 4x4 protocol may improve your VO2 max
  • (19:35) Evidence-based methods to estimate VO2 max outside a lab.
  • (22:33) What it takes to reverse 20 years of heart aging: a two-year protocol
  • (28:24) HIIT and type 2 diabetes – how vigorous exercise can reduce risk.
  • (29:38) The mitochondria argument: HIIT vs. Zone 2 – which intensity is better?
  • (32:09) Rethinking the 80-20 rule for everyday exercisers (less zone 2, more effort)
  • (35:18) The role of high-intensity workouts in enhancing mitophagy
  • (38:03) Why lactate accumulation from higher training intensity benefits the brain
  • (40:28) Why the "glucose sparing" effect of lactate benefits brain injury and aging
  • (43:26) The unique BDNF benefits of high-intensity exercise: the lactate advantage
  • (44:42) The angiogenic effects of VEGF on the blood-brain barrier (in response to lactate)
  • (46:58) The greater the exercise intensity, the greater the myokine release
  • (49:48) How physical activity affects death risk in breast & colorectal cancer survivors
  • (50:56) How vigorous aerobic exercise kills circulating tumor cells
  • (52:36) Why exercise reduces depression and neurotoxicity (kynurenine mechanism)
  • (54:13) The surprising power of "exercise snacks" against mortality
  • (1:01:36) Download "The Cognitive Enhancement Blueprint" at bdnfprotocols.com 

Watch this episode on YouTube

Show notes are available by clicking here

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Direct download: vig-ex-podcast-with-outro.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 6:51pm EST

This episode features Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D., and was originally recorded for the Institute for Functional Medicine's podcast, 'Pathways to Wellbeing.' This episode outlines a series of fundamental tactics you can start applying immediately to enhance cellular health, protect the nervous system, elevate mood, reduce inflammation, promote muscle and bone function, and help prevent chronic disease.

In this episode, I discuss:

  • (00:00) Introduction
  • (01:04) Vitamin D deficiency — risks, why it's so common, & correcting with supplementation
  • (08:20) Magnesium's critical role in DNA repair & synthesis
  • (11:49) The best dietary sources of magnesium
  • (13:05) Magnesium supplements: Glycinate, malate, dioxide, & citrate
  • (14:14) Exercise staves off age-related disease
  • (14:52) How genetic SNPs can affect vitamin D deficiency risk
  • (20:09) Low omega-3 intake from seafood is a top-6 preventable cause of death
  • (22:22) Why ALA's conversion into EPA & DHA is inefficient
  • (25:15) Omega-3 index: Optimal levels & ties to increased life expectancy
  • (28:27) How omega-3s reduce inflammation, a key driver of aging
  • (30:39) Omega-3s protect against muscle disuse atrophy
  • (31:38) Why avoiding fish during pregnancy is a huge mistake
  • (34:02) Omega-3s are a low-hanging fruit for improving cardiovascular & brain health
  • (35:46) What to look for when choosing an omega-3 supplement
  • (39:57) Hormesis: Why intermittent stressors are beneficial
  • (46:14) How to choose an exercise regimen
  • (47:09) “Exercise snacks” reduce all-cause & cancer-related mortality
  • (49:24) Brain benefits of lactate from vigorous exercise
  • (52:23) How blood flow generated from aerobic exercise kills circulating tumor cells
  • (54:30) Rhonda's workout regimen 
  • (55:38) HIIT ameliorates adverse effects of sleep deprivation 
  • (58:32) Exercise is the best longevity "drug"

Watch this episode on YouTube

Show notes are available by clicking here

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Learn more about the premium podcast The Aliquot: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/aliquot

Direct download: public_audio.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:23pm EST

Dr. Martin Gibala is a muscle physiologist, professor, and kinesiology department chair at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He is best known for pioneering research on the health benefits of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and his profound understanding of HIIT's physiological mechanisms. He is a co-author of the book "The One-Minute Workout."

In this episode, we discuss:

  • (00:00) Introduction
  • (11:00) What is high-intensity training?
  • (11:53) Zone 2 vs. HIIT for VO2 max — which is better?
  • (13:22) The vital role of vigorous exercise
  • (14:40) Why VO2 max matters for longevity
  • (17:45) Why athletes vs. exercisers benefit from different intensity distributions
  • (22:09) Measuring maximum heart rate and VO2 max
  • (30:31) How the heart adapts to HIIT to increase VO2 max
  • (35:47) Why vigorous exercise accelerates mitochondrial adaptation
  • (40:06) Enhancing fat oxidation and mitochondrial growth with vigorous exercise
  • (44:22) How intensive exercise boosts fat breakdown
  • (45:56) Is high-intensity exercise better for autophagy than fasting?
  • (55:15) Exercise snacks
  • (57:55) Why 'choosing the stairs' reduces early death (VILPA study)
  • (1:00:39) Protocol for VO2 max
  • (1:05:50) The effect of HIIT on muscle fiber types
  • (1:10:18) How aging effects muscle fibers
  • (1:14:09) Does high-intensity training produce an "afterburn effect?"
  • (1:16:13) Why vigorous workouts are better for BDNF and cognition
  • (1:23:15) Anti-metastatic cancer effects
  • (1:50:23) Wingate training vs. reHIIT — a comparison of protocols
  • (1:55:38) Perceived exertion vs. HRmax
  • (1:59:23) Interval walking for people with type 2 diabetes
  • (2:01:06) Contraindications of HIIT
  • (2:05:06) Why preconditioning reduces risks from exercise
  • (2:10:44) Can resistance training be a type of aerobic exercise?
  • (2:16:24) Does cardio and strength training interfere with each other?
  • (2:18:45) How many minutes per week of high-intensity training?
  • (2:26:58) Are there sex differences and misconceptions in high-intensity training, for women?
  • (2:27:42) Should post-menopausal women do H.I.I.T.?
  • (2:27:47) Does intense exercise raise cortisol?
  • (2:34:16) Bone density and osteoarthritis
  • (2:36:40) Atrial fibrillation risk
  • (2:39:20) Hypoxic training and blood flow restriction
  • (2:40:45) Tips for training with joint issues

Watch this episode on YouTube

Show notes are available by clicking here

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Direct download: gibala-public.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 5:39pm EST

Dr. Chris McGlory is an assistant professor at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Known for his work in the field of muscle physiology and aging, Dr. McGlory's research focuses on elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis and degradation, with a particular emphasis on the roles that omega-3 fatty acids play in maintaining muscle health in older adults.

In this episode, we discuss:

  • (00:00) Introduction
  • (05:50) Start of interview
  • (13:03) Why atrophy is worse for the old than the young
  • (15:23) Can dietary protein prevent atrophy?
  • (17:35) Why reduced movement can insidiously mimic short-term immobilization
  • (22:51) The disability threshold — when atrophy may actually be deadly
  • (24:58) Does high-dose omega-3 hold the key to fighting atrophy? (5g/day)
  • (28:35) Does omega-3 help muscle respond more optimally to low protein?
  • (41:37) Why omega-3 must be preloaded for 4 to 6 weeks
  • (44:20) Why omega-3 trials have conflicting results
  • (50:16) Does omega-3 enhance strength?
  • (52:42) Sex differences in gaining mass and strength
  • (54:46) Improvements in gait speed and balance (muscle performance / physical performance battery)
  • (55:49) How to act on mixed evidence — and should we?
  • (58:17) Why omega-3 may reduce frailty in old age
  • (1:01:59) Why the anabolic mechanisms are counterintuitive (going beyond the canonical anti-inflammatory role of omega-3)
  • (1:07:42) Do omega-3s boost tired, dysfunctional mitochondria?
  • (1:15:16) Why we need an "omega-3 index" for muscle
  • (1:18:52) Why the inflammation from cancer wastes muscle
  • (1:20:38) Does omega-3 reduce atrophy from cancer cachexia?

Watch this episode on YouTube

Show notes are available by clicking here

Join over 300,000 people and get the latest distilled information straight to your inbox several times per month: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/newsletter

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Learn more about the premium podcast The Aliquot: https://www.foundmyfitness.com/aliquot

Direct download: mcglory-audio-public.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:17am EST

Heat therapy, such as using a sauna or soaking in a hot bath, may significantly improve your slow wave sleep. My latest episode delves into the fascinating intersection between exercise and passive body heating and elucidates how high energy expenditure exercise and heat exposure share nuanced mechanisms in sleep regulation. Some key aspects explored include:

  • The surprising role of the immune system in regulating sleep through somnogenic cytokines, immune signals like IL-1B and TNF-alpha, released in response to heat stress and exercise.
  • The interconnected nature of thermoregulation and sleep, particularly in the brain, which highlights the importance of overlapping sleep regulation and heat loss processes. This involves warm-sensing preoptic area neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region known to play a crucial role in sleep regulation.
  • The intricate, bidirectional relationship between growth hormone (GH) and slow-wave sleep (SWS). With the majority of daily GH secretion occurring during the initial phase of SWS, stimulants of SWS, such as heat exposure, can result in enhanced GH secretion, establishing a strong connection between GH and sleep regulation.
  • The varying influence of heat on growth hormone, ranging from doubling after two 20-minute sauna sessions at 80°C, to increasing its circulation up to 16-fold after two one-hour sauna sessions at 80°C.

These findings highlight the potential for heat therapy and exercise with a high rate of energy expenditure to modulate slow wave sleep through the interconnected nature of thermoregulation, immunity, exercise, and hormones. By understanding and harnessing these links, individuals can potentially enhance their sleep quality and overall health and well-being.

In this episode, I discuss:

  • (00:00) - Introduction
  • (01:06) - Increasing pre-sleep tiredness
  • (02:06) - Effects of exercise
  • (04:09) - How the immune system regulates sleep
  • (05:07) - What heat and exercise have in common
  • (06:39) - Hormonal effects of heat
  • (06:59) - Growth hormone
  • (09:26) - Prolactin and sleep onset
  • (10:39) - Effect of sexual activity
  • (12:08) - Overlap in the brain (thermoregulation vs. sleep)
  • (12:46) - Heat protocols and tactics

Watch this episode on YouTube

Show notes are available by clicking here

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Direct download: sauna-sleep-podcast.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 2:55pm EST

Dr. Axel Montagne is a chancellor's fellow and group leader at the UK Dementia Research Institute at the University of Edinburgh Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences. His group aims to understand how, when, and where critical components of the blood-brain barrier become dysfunctional preceding dementia and in the earliest stages of age-related cognitive decline. With this knowledge, they hope to develop precise treatments targeting brain vasculature to protect brain function.

More importantly his work, and that of his colleagues, provide a critical lens through which to view the contributions of vascular dysfunction (or, conversely, vascular health – if we choose to preserve it) as a critical common thread in dementia and neurodegeneration.

In this episode, we discuss:

  • (00:00) Introduction to Dr. Axel Montagne
  • (11:44) What dementias have in common
  • (12:42) The importance of preserving small blood vessels (in the brain)
  • (13:38) Changes in the blood-brain barrier in aging that cause "leaking"
  • (15:11) Predicting cognitive decline early with biomarkers – an opportunity for intervention?
  • (16:32) Why targeting amyloid isn’t enough
  • (18:54) The impact of the APOE4 genotype on brain vasculature
  • (24:19) The cause of white matter damage in the brain
  • (33:47) Why the loss of omega-3 transport affects pericytes
  • (35:25) The role of exercise in prevention of blood-brain barrier dysfunction
  • (35:45) Why high heart rates during exercise preserve brain function
  • (36:49) The role of exercise in preserving vision health
  • (40:17) Why leaky vessels damage myelin and the brain
  • (45:31) Can you have more than one type of dementia?
  • (47:54) Does the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier cause “type 3 diabetes"?
  • (54:03) Why omega-3 may prevent detachment of pericytes
  • (1:14:35) Why a hepatitis drug restored cognition in APOE4 mice
  • (1:19:39) Why blood-brain barrier disruption results in the accumulation of amyloid-beta
  • (1:25:14) Why lifetime hypertension increases dementia risk
  • (1:37:13) Effects of obesity on blood-brain barrier leakage

Watch this episode on YouTube

Show notes are available by clicking here

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Direct download: axel-montagne-master.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:00am EST

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